Over the last fifteen years one of the most important voices on Brazilian political economy has been Carlos Alberto Sardenberg, publishing a weekly column in the newspaper O Estado de São Paulo. In his last column “Foi bom, mas acabou” he hung up his pen and bowed gracefully from his newspaper’s pages with a neat summary of what he has seen and, more interestingly for current debates, what he sees as the big problem facing Brazil today: the lack of public and private investment. He points to the rise of economic stability in Brazil and the concomitant increases in public spending on social programs, but not infrastructure. The result is a logistical nightmare and a major part of the notorious custo Brasil, or Brazil cost. Sardenberg’s parting shot is on the mark and something we can expect to hear a lot more about as the world turns its attention to how Brazil will manage the transportation challenges of the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympic Games, not to mention the hurdles that the government must clear if it is to succeed in its efforts to create an export-oriented manufacturing base.